References to Claims that Foreign-born Workers Create Jobs (A.K.A. - the Parrot page)

Source of Claim that Each Foreign-born Worker in STEM with an Advanced U.S. degree Creates 2.6 Native Jobs

  1. Immigration and American Jobs - Madeline Zavodny, December 2011 (AEI & PNAE*) - The data comparing employment among the fifty states and the District of Columbia show that from 2000 to 2007, an additional 100 foreign-born workers in STEM fields with advanced degrees from US universities is associated with an additional 262 jobs among US natives. (page 4)

Analyses of Claim that Each Foreign-born Worker in STEM with an Advanced U.S. degree Creates 2.6 Native Jobs

  1. The Claim that Each Additional 100 Stem Workers with an Advanced U.S. Degree Create an Additional 262 Native Jobs - The study's results are dependent upon selecting a time span that includes the tech crash of 2000-2002, a time span that included steep losses of both native and foreign workers. However, if the 2000-2007 time span of the study is moved forward two years to 2002-2009, a time span with general job gains (at least through 2008), the relationship reverses, showing a correlation between foreign job gain and native job LOSS.
  2. Analysis of Key Finding from "Immigration and American Jobs" - Detailed Analysis of "Immigration and American Jobs".

Other Articles that Critique the 2.6 Number

  1. The Trouble with State-by-State Analyses of H-1B - Norman Matloff, November 19, 2014 - In Zavodny’s case, for instance, what would happen if employers were to hire 100 additional U.S. citizens and permanent residents instead of H-1Bs? (See qualifier coming up.) Would they not “cause” 262 jobs to be created?

  2. The paradox of job creation - Beryl Benderly, February 5, 2015 - The 2.62 figure comes from a 2011 study by economist Madeline Zavodny of Agnes Scott College in Decatur, Georgia, which was sponsored and published by the American Enterprise Institute and the Partnership for a New American Economy, an advocate of increased high-skill immigration.

  3. Each Skilled Immigrant Creates 2.5 Jobs for Natives? - Steven Camarota, August 18, 2015 - The 2.62 number comes from a paper written by Madeline Zavodny for the American Enterprise Institute (AEI) and the Partnership for a New American Economy (co-chaired by high-immigration billionaires Michael Bloomberg and Rupert Murdoch) with the explicit purpose of advocating for expanded immigration.

2012 References

  1. NOT COMING TO AMERICA: Why the US is Falling Behind in the Global Race for Talent - PNAE* & The Partnership fo New York City, May 2012 - A recent report by the American Enterprise Institute and the Partnership for a New American Economy found that every immigrant with an advanced degree from a US university working in a STEM field creates 2.62 new American jobs. (page 6)

  2. Compete America Facebook Page (top right corner), June 22, 2012 - 2.62 - Number of U.S. jobs each foreign born worker with an advanced STEM dgree, from an American university, creates

  3. The U.S. Economy Still Needs High-Skilled Immigrant Workers - Walter Ewing, Dec 7, 2012 (American Immigration Council) - Research has found that “every foreign-born student who graduates from a U.S. university with an advanced degree and stays to work in STEM has been shown to create on average 2.62 jobs for American workers – often because they help lead in innovation, research, and development.”

  4. Help Wanted - The Role of Foreign Workers in the Innovation Economy - Information Technology Industry Council, PNAE* & the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, Nov 20, 2012 - Every foreign-born student who graduates from a US university with an advanced degree and stays to work in STEM has been shown to create on average 2.62 jobs for American workers – often because they help lead in innovation, research and development. (page 3)

  5. House passes graduate migrant visas bill - April Dembosky, December 1, 2012 (Financial Times) - Another study found graduates who stayed in the US and work in a STEM field create an average 2.62 jobs for US workers.

  6. America needs to tap the high-tech skills of ready and willing immigrants - New York Daily News, December 7, 2012 - Meanwhile, American companies face a shortfall of more than 230,000 STEM degree holders over the coming decade, each of whom would give rise to a projected 2.6 jobs for Americans.

2013 References

  1. Congressional Record - Senator Orrin Hatch, January 29, 2013 - Continued inaction causes us to miss out on an important opportunity, especially since, as the American Enterprise Institute has confirmed, 100 foreign-born workers with STEM degrees create an average of 262 additional jobs for native-born workers.

  2. Immigration cap drags on US manufacturing - Anna Fifield, Feb 11, 2013 (Financial Times) - Previous research had shown that each person who graduates with an advanced Stem degree and stays in the US creates on average 2.62 jobs for American workers.

  3. Tech Executives: Immigration Reform a Top Priority - Gary Shapiro, March 27, 2013 (Forbes) - A recent study found that the average foreign-born student who graduates from a U.S. university and works in a STEM field – science, technology, engineering and mathematics – will create about 2.62 jobs for American workers.

  4. The benefits of the H-1B visa - John Hailer, April 2, 2013 (The Boston Globe) - Every immigrant in the STEM fields with an advanced degree from a US university creates 2.62 jobs for US citizens.

  5. The Economic Benefits Of Fixing Our Broken Immigration System - Executive Office of the President, July 2013 - Moreover, studies indicate that every foreign-born student with an advanced degree from a U.S. university who stays to work in a STEM field is associated with, on average, 2.6 jobs for American workers. (page 7)

  6. White House Plays Offense: Says Immigration Reform Will Turbocharge Entrepreneurship - Catherine Clifford, July 10, 2013 - Each foreign-born student with an advanced degree that stays in the U.S. and works in a STEM field creates 2.6 jobs, the White House report says.

2014 References

  1. Why Detroit's Plea for Immigrant Workers Could Signal National Reform - Jeremy Quittner, Jan 24, 2014 - Each STEM worker retained in the U.S. creates 2.6 U.S. jobs on average, Snyder's office said.

  2. Detroit Homestead Act - Wall Street Journal, March 12, 2014 - The American Enterprise Institute and the Partnership for a New American Economy estimate that each foreign worker with an advanced U.S. degree helps create 2.6 jobs for American workers.

  3. Immigration Lawyers and their Vital Role in the Global Economy - Who's Who Legal, April 2014 - It has been shown that for each foreign-born student who graduates from a US university with a STEM degree and who remains in the US to work in his or her field, 2.62 jobs are created in the US economy.

  4. Tech Demands More H-1B Visas As Critics Cry Foul - Matthew DeLuca, April 10th 2014 (NBC News) - “In fact, every foreign-born student who graduates from a U.S. university with an advanced degree in STEM creates an average of 2.62 jobs for American workers.”

  5. The Urgency of Immigration Reform: Attracting the World’s Best and Brightest - Todd Park, June 16, 2014 (The White House Blog) - Every foreign-born graduate with an advanced STEM degree is associated with, on average, 2.6 jobs for American workers.

  6. The hidden immigration crisis: Keeping talent in the United States - Tom Still, July 19, 2014 - Every foreign-born graduate with an advanced degree in a science, technology, engineering or math field is associated with, on average, 2.6 jobs for American workers, according to a federal estimate.

  7. Foreign STEM Graduates Create Jobs - Tarek Fakhouri, September 29, 2014 - Even outside of start-ups, studies have shown that for every foreign-born student who graduates from and stays in the United States employed in a STEM field that an average of 2.62 jobs are created for U.S. born workers.

  8. Know the Facts: H-1B Visas - FWD.us, Sep 29, 2014 - The Fact Is: Every Foreign-Born Worker With A Stem Degree Creates An Average Of 2.6 Jobs For Native-Born Americans (1:03)

2015 References

  1. Blumenthal defends bill to increase guestworkers - Lee Howard, Jan 19. 2015 (The Day) - But Blumenthal pointed out that for every one green card recipient who gets a job utilizing high-tech skills, studies have shown that 2.6 additional jobs are created for American workers.

  2. Immigration reform for foreign STEM graduate students - Rajib Al Mamun, Feb 8, 2015 (The Hill) - It will create another 130,000 jobs (one foreign STEM graduate helps to create 2.6 jobs) every year.

  3. Time to pass Immigration Innovation Act - A. Scott Anderson, Feb 13, 2015 - A study by the American Enterprise Institute and the Partnership for a New American Economy found that each foreign-born advanced-degree graduate we train and employ here leads to the creation of 2.6 American jobs.

  4. Written Testimony Before the Senate Judiciary Committee - Benjamin Johnson, March 17, 2015 - For example, a 2012 report found that each foreign-born graduate from a U.S. university with an advanced degree who stays in the U.S. to work in a STEM occupation creates an average of 2.62 jobs for American workers. (page 6)

  5. Joint News Release – Senators Orrin Hatch and Jeff Flake, March 17, 2015 - As the conservative American Enterprise Institute has confirmed, each foreign-born worker with a STEM degree who remains in the United States creates an average of more than 2.5 additional American jobs. [LINK]

  6. MYTHS VS. FACTS: SETTING THE RECORD STRAIGHT ON IMMIGRATION - David Isaacs, March 17, 2015 - In fact, immigration helps create jobs for American workers. A study by the American Enterprise Institute found that 2.62 jobs are created for U.S.-born workers for each foreign-born worker in the U.S. with a U.S. STEM graduate degree.

  7. Statement of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce - Senate Hearing, March 26, 2015 - ... and that each foreign-born worker in the U.S. with a U.S. STEM graduate degree is associated with 2.62 jobs for U.S.-born workers. (page 9)

  8. Senator’s Call for ‘Immigration Reductions’ Avoids Fact that Immigration Helps U.S. Workers - — Sean Hackbarth, April 10, 2015 - 2.62 jobs are created for native-born workers for each foreign worker with a STEM graduate degree.

  9. Increase the cap on H-1B visas: Todd Schulte of FWD.us, April 14, 2015 - Every foreign student who graduates from a U.S. university with an advanced degree and stays and works in a STEM-related field creates an additional 2.62 American jobs.

  10. FACTS YOU CAN USE To Prove That High-Skilled Immigration is Good for America’s Workforce and Economy, closed briefing for Congressional staff, April 24, 2015 - Every foreign-born worker in the United States with a U.S. STEM degree creates 2.62 jobs for U.S.-born workers.

  11. Quigley, Paulsen Introduce Bipartisan Immigration Bill Encouraging American Innovation, April 30, 2015 - For example, a 2011 American Enterprise Institute study found that “an additional 100 foreign-born workers in STEM fields with advanced degrees from US universities is associated with an additional 262 jobs among U.S. natives.”

  12. Paulsen, Quigley Introduce Bipartisan Immigration Bill Encouraging American Innovation, April 30, 2015 - For example, a 2011 American Enterprise Institute study found that “an additional 100 foreign-born workers in STEM fields with advanced degrees from U.S. universities is associated with an additional 262 jobs among U.S. natives.”

  13. The 2015 STAPLE Act: Will Relief Finally Come for U.S. Employers in Need of Foreign Talent? - Gregory Eck, May 6, 2015 - For example, a 2011 American Enterprise Institute study found that “an additional 100 foreign-born workers in STEM fields with advanced degrees from U.S. universities is associated with an additional 262 jobs among U.S. natives.”

  14. H1B visa lowers wages, has negligible impact on patents: Study - Business Standard, May 7, 2015 - However, the study by major US IT firms, briefed to Congressional staffers last month, states that every foreign- born worker in the US with a US STEM degree creates 2.62 jobs for US-born workers.

  15. Why Tech Companies Like Microsoft Hire H-1B Employees - Joubin Sedgh, June 11, 2015 - Every immigrant “STEM” worker with an advanced degree from an accredited U.S. institution creates 2.62 jobs for U.S. citizens.

  16. Here's What Mass Deportation Would Mean - FWD.us President Todd Schulte, August 19, 2015 - Every foreign student who graduates from a U.S. university with an advanced degree and stays and works in a STEM-related field creates an additional 2.62 American jobs.

  17. Immigrant Nation, American Success: PhDs and Patents - Immigration Prof, August 31, 2015 - Studies by organizations such as the World Bank, the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, and the bipartisan Partnership for a New American Economy have projected ... and that, on average, 2.62 jobs are created for every foreign-born graduate with an advanced degree from a U.S. university who stays to work in a STEM field.

  18. According to a 2012 report by the U.S. Chamber of Commerce studying foreign students with a STEM degree hired by American companies, each H-1B employee creates 2.62 additional jobs for American workers.

2016 References

  1. International Students Are Us Business' Best Hope For Growth - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs, July 12, 2016 - The American Enterprise Institute and the Partnership for a New American Economy estimate that every international student who attains a graduate STEM degree in the United States who is hired by a US employer creates 2.62 additional jobs in the U.S. economy.

  2. How President-Elect Trump Can Spur More Growth? Through Tech - Alan Fleischmann, Fortune, November 13, 2016 - According to a 2012 report by the U.S. Chamber of Commerce studying foreign students with a STEM degree hired by American companies, each H-1B employee creates 2.62 additional jobs for American workers.

  3. Donald Trump’s undefined stance an opportunity to reform H1B visa system: Alan Fleischmann - According to a 2012 report each H-1B employee creates 2.62 additional jobs for American workers - The Indian Express, November 14, 2016 - According to a 2012 report by the US Chamber of Commerce studying foreign students with a STEM degree hired by American companies, each H-1B employee creates 2.62 additional jobs for American workers.

  4. More H-1B Visas - More Jobs for Americans! - Tupaki.com, November 14, 2016 - As per US Chamber of Commerce 2012 report, Every H-1B Empolyee created 2.62 additional jobs for American Workers.

  5. 'H-1B visas lifeline to the global talent', Trump urged to reform the system - Press Trust of India, Business Standard, Fortune, November 14, 2016 - According to a 2012 report by the US Chamber of Commerce studying foreign students with a STEM degree hired by American companies, each H-1B employee creates 2.62 additional jobs for American workers.

  6. Silicon Valley Wants Donald Trump to Ease H-1B Visa Norms - Bharadwaj Sharma, Scroll Today News, November 14, 2016 - According to a 2012 report by the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, each H-1B employee creates 2.62 additional jobs for American workers.

  7. A CEO from Silicon Valley presses Donald Trump to increase H-1B visas - Y Axis, November 15, 2016 - Fleischmann said there was proof that under this visa programme, jobs would increase and wages would rise for Americans. Citing the US Chamber of Commerce’s 2012 report, he said that 2.62 additional jobs were created for US-born citizens by each H-1B employee.

  8. Trump impelled to reform H1B visa program & increase quota - Visa Weekly, November 17, 2016 - As per a report from 2012, by the US Chamber of Commerce, when foreign students having a STEM degree are recruited by US companies, every H-1B worker generates an additional 2.62 percentage of jobs for Americans.

* PNAE = The Partnership for a New American Economy

Source of Claim that Each 100 H-1B Workers Create 183 Native Jobs

  1. Immigration and American Jobs - Madeline Zavodny, December 2011 (AEI & PNAE*) - Adding 100 H-1B workers results in an additional 183 jobs among US natives. (page 4)

Analyses of Claim that Each STEM H-1B Worker Creates 1.83 Native Jobs

  1. The Claim that Each Additional 100 H-1B Workers Create an Additional 183 Native Jobs - The study's results are dependent upon selecting a time span that includes the tech crash of 2000-2002, a time span that included steep losses of both native and foreign workers. However, if the 2000-2010 time span of the study is changed to 2002-2008, a time span with general job gains, the relationship reverses, showing a correlation between foreign job gain and native job LOSS.

2013 References

  1. Hearing before the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation - Stuart Anderson, May 8, 2013 - Economist Madeline Zavodny found each additional 100 approved H-1B workers were associated with an additional 183 jobs among U.S. natives from 2001 to 2010.

  2. Do immigrants take jobs or create them? - Max Schireson's blog, May 21, 2013 - Adding 100 H-1B (skilled immigrant) workers created 183 jobs for US natives.

  3. Congressional Record - Senator Ted Cruz, June 11, 2013 - The economic data indicates that for every 100 H-1B high-skilled workers who come into this country, 183 jobs are created for U.S. citizens.

2014 References

  1. Low H-1B Visa Caps Don’t Reflect Market Reality - Laura Collins, April 1, 2014 - A mere 10% increase in the number of H-1B workers would result in a 0.11 percent increase in the native employment rate. From 2001-10, this would have meant an extra 183 jobs for U.S. workers for every 100 H-1B jobs.

  2. Contributing to American Growth - Business Roundtable, June, 2014 - Specifically, adding 100 skilled workers is associated with an additional 183 jobs among native-born workers... (page 8)

2015 References

  1. Testimony Before the Senate Judiciary Committee - Bjorn Billhardt, March 17, 2015 - Studies show that for every 100 H-1B workers, an additional 183 jobs are created for workers born in the United States. (page 2)

  2. Ted Cruz wants to increase H-1B visas from 65,000 to 325,000 annually - The American Bazaar, March 23, 2015 - In defending the H-1B increase, Cruz cited a study by the American Enterprise Institute that claimed 183 jobs for U.S. nationals are created for every 100 H-1B workers employed on American soil.

  3. Statement of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce - Senate Hearing, March 26, 2015 - ... that each approved H-1B high-skilled, legal, professional worker is associated with an additional 1.83 jobs among U.S.-born workers, ... (page 9)

  4. High-Skilled H-1B Visas: Demand Outstrips Supply — Again — Sean Hackbarth, April 7, 2015 - FACT: For every 100 H-1B workers, an additional 183 jobs for U.S. native-born workers are created.

  5. Senator’s Call for ‘Immigration Reductions’ Avoids Fact that Immigration Helps U.S. Workers - — Sean Hackbarth, April 10, 2015 - As noted earlier this week, 1.83 jobs are created for native-born workers for each H-1B visa holder.

  6. FACTS YOU CAN USE To Prove That High-Skilled Immigration is Good for America’s Workforce and Economy, closed briefing for Congressional staff, April 24, 2015 - Every H-1B visa holder creates 1.83 American jobs...

  7. Mayors, Biz Groups Issue Guide To Improve H-1B Program - Kelly Knaub, April 28, 2015 - The guide points out that every H-1B visa holder creates 1.83 American jobs...

  8. H1B visa lowers wages, has negligible impact on patents: Study - Business Standard, May 7, 2015 - It also said that every H-1B visa holder creates 1.83 jobs in the US.

  9. Here's What Mass Deportation Would Mean - FWD.us President Todd Schulte, August 19, 2015 - For every 100 H-1B workers, an additional 183 jobs among U.S. native-born workers are created.

  10. Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg slams Donald Trump's anti-H1-B visa policy - The Economic Times, August 21, 2015 - "For every 100 H-1B workers, an additional 183 jobs among US native-born workers are created. Immigrants are nearly twice as likely to start their own business as native-born Americans," he added.

  11. Facebook CEO Zuckerberg Fires Back At Trump’s Proposed Immigration Plan For Workers With H-1B Visas - CBS SF Bay Area, August 22, 2015 - “For every 100 H-1B workers, an additional 183 jobs among US native-born workers are created...” wrote Shulte.

  12. Minnesota's business leaders know Donald Trump's immigration plan is bad policy - Charlie Weaver, September 1, 2015 - An analysis by the American Enterprise Institute and Partnership for a New American Economy found that “adding 100 H-1B workers results in an additional 183 jobs among U.S. natives.”

  13. Governor Bill Richardson's Speech at Cato Institute's Event in DC to Celebrate the 50th Anniversary of 1965's Immigration Act of 1965, October 2, 2015 - The American Enterprise Institute found that for every 100 H-1B workers, an additional 183 jobs are generated for U.S. natives.
* PNAE = The Partnership for a New American Economy
Analysis of "Immigration and American Jobs"
Analysis of the claim that each H-1B worker creates 1.83 jobs
Analysis of the claim that each STEM worker with an advanced U.S. degrees creates 2.62 jobs
References to Claims that Foreign-born Workers Create Jobs
Claim of 1.4 million computer science jobs with only 400,000 computer science graduates to fill them
Claim that there were over half a million good-paying tech jobs unfilled last year
Claim that there could be 2.4 million unfilled STEM jobs by 2018
Analysis of "Foreign STEM Workers and Native Wages and Employment in U.S. Cities"
Analysis of "STEM Workers, H-1B Visas, and Productivity in US Cities"
A Look At Mariel Using R
Commentary on the Skills Gap
Composition of STEM Workers in Selected Locations: 2013
Computer Workforce by Age
H-1B Labor Condition Applications: 2001-2013
Information on H-1B Visas
Go to Budget Home Page
To contact me, use the contact box at the bottom of http://usbudget.blogspot.com/.